English as a Second Language

IGCSE English as a Second Language - Cambridge Syllabus

Water Cube

Read the following article on Beijing National Aquatic Centre and complete the notes .

Construction work on the Beijing National Aquatic Centre began in December 2003 in preparation for the 2008 Olympics and four years later, a stunning piece of architecture has been completed. The “Water Cube” is a rectangular-shaped steel building covered by a membrane of brightly lit blue bubbles which is incredible to look at but it is also important on an environmental level.

             The water cube consists of 100,000 square meters of ETFE, (Ethylene Tetrafluoroethylene) a unique transparent plastic which absorbs solar radiation and reduces thermal loss. This is the first time ETFE has been used in China and it is the world’s largest and most complex ETFE building ever constructed.

               ETFE is recyclable and light (1% the weight of glass) but it is also strong, capable of bearing up to 400 times its own weight. As it lets in more light and is a better insulator than glass, it will reduce energy costs in the Water Cube by 30%. The Water Cube’s structure consists of 3000 pneumatic cushions ranging with different sizes from 9sqm to less than 1sqm in size. These “air bubbles” are relatively independent of each other so they can be easily replaced. The Led-lit bubbles allow warm air to enter the building and keep the warm temperature at an optimum 28 degrees, but the air can also be stored and used in the Water Cube when required.

                The building has outdoor and indoor air recycling systems, solar energy and double-deck ventilation devices. The air-conditioning system uses recycled hot water and the designers engineered the airflow in the Water Cube to ensure that the ventilation in the upper regions of the building was optimized. To help keep humidity at 50-60%, air ventilation systems at the lower end of the roof and in the façade of the building shell were also installed. Also, the pool’s depth is 13 meters, which helps to reduce the interference of water temperature variation.

                The Water Cube spans 80,000sqm and as constructed with 6,700 tons of steel, but as ETFE spans greater distances than glass it needed less supportive steel structure beneath it. Further water-saving and environmental protection measures are featured on the outer surface and façade of the roof which can collect tens of thousands of tons of water annually. During the Olympics, the Water Cube will seat 17,000 fans and 42 gold medals will be up for the grabs in swimming, diving, synchronized swimming and water-polo final during the games.

                However, unlike the nearby National Stadium of “Bird’s Nest” which people fear may lay dormant after the Games, the Water Cube will be converted into a multi-functional facility for sports, culture and recreation, including a café and water slide. As ETFE has an expected life span of up to 50 years the Water Cube is guaranteed to live on far beyond 2008.

 

Imagine you are preparing for a speech on Olympics 2008 with reference to aquatic events. Prepare some notes to use as the basis for your speech at the Sports Club of your school.

 

Physical features of Water cube (2 points)

Features that make Water Cube eco-friendly (4 points)

Inclusions that will be made inside Water Cube after the Games (2 points)

 

Answer Key

Physical features of Water cube – 2 marks

 

Ø  Rectangular-shaped steel building

Ø  Covered by a membrane of brightly lit blue bubbles

 

Features that make Water Cube eco-friendly (any 4) – 4 marks

 

Ø  Absorbs solar radiation

Ø  Reduces thermal loss

Ø  recyclable

Ø  allows warm air to enter building

Ø  help keep water temperature at an optimum 28 degrees

Ø  air-conditioning uses recycled hot water

Ø  reduced interference of  water temperature variation

 

Inclusions that will be made inside Water Cube after the Games – 2 marks

 

Ø  multifunctional facility for sports, culture and recreation

Ø  will include a café and water slide

Copyright - to the teacher who made this paper...thank you

The Football Association

Read the article about the origin of the football association and then complete the notes.

It was in England that football really began to take shape though the Chinese, Japanese, Italian, Ancient Greek, Persian, Viking, and many more played a ball game long before our era. The Chinese played "football" games as far back as 3000 years ago. It all started in 1863 in England, when two football association (association football and rugby football) split off on their different course. Therefore, the first Football Association was founded in England.

On October 1963, eleven London clubs and schools sent their representatives to the Freemason's Tavern. These representatives were intent on clarifying the confusion by establishing a set of fundamental rules, acceptable to all parties, to govern the matches played amongst  them. This meeting marked the birth of The Football Association. The eternal dispute concerning shin-kicking, tripping and carrying the ball was discussed thoroughly at this and consecutive meetings until eventually on 8 December the die-hard exponents of the Rugby style took their final leave.

Only eight years after its foundation, The Football Association already had 50 member clubs. The first football competition in the world was started in the same year - the FA Cup.

International matches were being staged in Great Britain before football had hardly been heard of in Europe. The first was played in 1872 and was contested by England and Scotland. This sudden boom of organized football accompanied by staggering crowds of spectators brought with it certain problems with which other countries were not confronted until much later on. Professionalism was one of them. Two Darwin players, the Scots John Love and Fergus Suter, are reported as being the first players ever to receive remuneration for their football talent. This practice grew rapidly and the Football Association found itself obliged to legalise professionalism as early as 1885.

After the English Football Association, the next oldest are the Scottish FA (1873), the FA of Wales (1875) and the Irish FA (1880). The spread of football outside of England, mainly due to the British influence abroad, started slow, but it soon gathered momentum and spread rapidly to all parts of the world. The next countries to form football associations after the Netherlands and Denmark in 1889 were New Zealand (1891), Argentina (1893), Chile (1895), Switzerland, Belgium (1895), Italy (1898), Germany, Uruguay (both in 1900), Hungary (1901) and Finland (1907).

When FIFA was founded in Paris in May 1904 it had seven founder members: France, Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands, Spain (represented by the Madrid FC), Sweden and Switzerland. The German Football Federation cabled its intention to join on the same day. At present, after the 2000 Ordinary FIFA Congress, FIFA has 204 members in every part of the world.

---------------------------

Beginnings (2 points)

Reasons football and rugby split(2 points)

Oldest Football Associations(2 points)

FIFA (2 points)

Answer Key

will post in a day or two - john :)

Eva Malmström Shivdasani

Read the article about Eva Malmström Shivdasani, the female half of Six Senses, the company that's redefined the concept of natural luxury. Then write a set of notes, using the headings given.

Despite setting all the clocks in her new villa 30 minutes ahead, Eva Malmström Shivdasani turned up late for our interview and photo shoot. "I'm so so sorry," breathed the barefoot blonde as she walked briskly across the sand. "I tried to leave the house on time, but things kept popping up." Given the state of the rapidly brightening morning sun over her Maldivian island paradise, Soneva Fushi, we all decided to shoot first and talk later. Eva was one of Sweden's top fashion models during a career that spanned the 1970s to the late 1980s. Before that she ran a design company in Paris. (Pardon the fuzzy timelines, but while the youthfully vigorous Shivdasani believes "age is a state of mind; it all depends how you feel," she's positively phobic about dates.)

                Today, Eva still thrives on taking charge of people and situations. A woman who crams a tape measure, screwdriver, camera, flashlight and scissors into a small clutch purse along with her hairbrush, mirror and lipstick is clearly ready for more than just photo shoots. Eva has been an independent do-it-yourselfer since childhood, in part because her father Hans Malmström treated his elder daughter like the son he never had. A chief pilot for SAS, the now-retired Mr. Malmström frequently moved homes with his wife and two daughters, which started Shivdasani on her lifelong passion for travel.

             Six Senses' nonhierarchical corporate structure also comes straight out of Eva's upbringing. "My parents always told me everyone is equal and you must respect and treat everyone as you want them to treat you." She remembers most staff names (no mean feat with over 1,500 employees from 20 countries) and is constantly chatting and hugging people. Her clearly devoted employees seem to espouse her credo: "We're all the same, we just have different job descriptions.

                 Another childhood legacy is her sincere concern for the environment. "Being Swedish you're brought up that way, to save water, save electricity, save nature," she says. "I always believe if you help nature, nature will help you." Because of her, all the resorts are built whenever possible with recycled materials and they pay serious attention to organic gardening, recycling, sewage treatment and energy efficiency. Soneva Fushi boasts a desalination plant and solar power for certain operations (with more planned). Eva launched a successful campaign to save the Maldivian turtles and lately has turned her focus on saving the local sharks. Each resort must also donate a portion of its profits to charity - Soneva Fushi, for example, supports an eye foundation

                The romance between the top Swedish model and the handsome Indian millionaire a decade (or thereabouts) her junior is still going strong 16 years after they first met in Monaco during the Grand Prix. They married three years later. "I thought I'd never get married because I'm an Aries and I get bored very quickly," explains Eva, in rapid-fire and lightly accented English. "But it's true, you do know when you meet the right person, you do know. It's never too late. Never ever too late.

              Not surprisingly, she holds strong opinions on most topics. Who inspires her? "People who are kind, honest, straightforward and preferably intelligent." Is she ever bored? "Never. I don't have time to be bored." For her the meaning of life is "to love and to help and to be there for everybody." Since she never indulges in spa treatments, meditation or any of the feel-good offerings of her resorts, how does she unwind? "When I'm on holiday. I just lie and read. I don't lie and relax. I read and read. I get up in the morning, have my breakfast and read. Read, read, and read. Maybe lying in the sun, I have my lunch, read, read, read. And have dinner and then read, read, read and go to sleep."    

              The following afternoon, we both happened to be leaving the island at the same time. As the wooden boat pulled away from the jetty for the two-minute ride to Soneva Fushi International Airport (actually a tiny pontoon), Eva turned back to wave at the staff. "Take care of my island!" she called out, much like a mom might hand over a kid to a trusted nanny. Then, sitting back in the boat, she pulled out a notebook and began furiously scribbling lists.

© Jennifer Gampell / Scanorama – March 2004

Imagine that you are going to make a presentation to your class on Eva Malmström Shivdasani. Prepare some notes on the given headings to use as the basis for your speech.

Early career (2 points)

Towards staff (1 point)

Childhood legacy concerning environment (2 points)

Successful environmental campaigns (2 points)

Who inspires her (1 point)

Answer Key

Early career(2)

1. Sweden's top fashion model.

2. Ran a design company in Paris.

Towards Staff(1)

1. Remembers most staff names

2. Constantly chatting and hugging people

3. Her credo that we are all the same with different job descriptions.

Childhood legacy concerning environment(2)

1. Being Swedish she was brought up to save water, electricity and nature.

2. Believes that nature will help you if you help nature.

Successful environmental campaigns(2)

1. save Maldivian turtles

2. saving local sharks

Who inspires her(1)

1. People who are kind, honest, straightforward and preferably intelligent.

Farmer's Market

Read this article about farmers’ markets and complete the notes.

Farmers’ Markets

New foods and new places

Seeing all the fast food outlets on our streets, a stranger to these shores might think all we ate was take-a-ways. Of course, take-a-ways are popular, but, we’re a million miles away from the stereotypes of “meat and two veg” and “fish ‘n’ chips”. And it’s not just what we eat that is changing; it’s also how we shop for it.

Something different from supermarkets

Most people in the UK embrace the ease and choice supermarkets offer. However we’re becoming increasingly aware that there are types and styles of food, seen on TV, eaten on holidays, or read about in Sunday newspaper supplements, that these supermarkets don’t provide. So, while we might buy our daily food from supermarkets, we’re also shopping in other places for exotic extras and organic food. One of the most popular of these places are farmers’ markets.

Bustling markets

The markets are lively affairs. They’re usually held on Saturday mornings, and attract all sorts of people; the dedicated foodie, passers by. Indeed, the stalls stocked with produce from he countryside, the sometimes cheeky banter between stallholder and the customer and the friendly atmosphere can be at odds with their urban settings. These markets are modern affairs, though given an edge by the trendy new foods, or flyers for the farms, with their website addresses on them.

Exotic goods

Farmers’ markets are held all over UK. They’re places where we can buy food direct from the people who farmed it. We can be passionate about our food, so it’s reassuring to see, and talk to the people who have produced it, and know that the creators are as passionate about it as we are.

At Farmers’ markets, you can buy traditional food, such as chicken pies, as well as exotic meats such as ostrich, which are growing in popularity in the UK. All produce sold at these markets has been produced by the stall holders. Farmers see the markets as a way to cut out the middleman, and sell direct to the people who appreciate good food. These markets have provided a useful, sometimes vital source of income for farmers, who have been embattled with food and health scares for the last few years. They also give a chance for small, independent food producers, such as a cheese maker to display their wares. But what’s in it for the consumer? Well, in addition to the chance to buy good quality, hard-to-find food, and many customers feel that they are reconnecting with the land. In these days of pre-packaged meat and all the year round vegetables, many like the chance to feel the food they buy with their own hands. Pushing a trolley in a supermarket can be sterile experience and from time to time people like the chance to shop at these markets and buy direct from the producers of the food.

[I have unfortunately been unable to provide copyright information on this article and the questions that follow and woud welcome any information which would enable me to give credit where its due.]

You are going to give a talk to your food club at school about Farmers’ Markets.

Prepare some notes to use as the basis for your talk under these headings.

Touches of modernity seen in the Farmers’ Markets (2 points)

Benefits gained by farmers from Farmers’ Markets (3 points)

Benefits Farmers’ Markets provide consumers (3 points)

Answer Key

Touches of modernity seen in the Farmers’ Markets (any 2 points) 

trendy new foods

flyers for the farms

website addresses

Benefits gained by farmers from Farmers’ Markets (any 3 points)

vital source of income for farmers

a chance for small, independent food producers

a way to cut out the middleman

sell direct to the people who appreciate good food

Benefits Farmers’ Markets provide consumers (any 3 points)

able to buy good quality food

feel that they are reconnecting with the land

feel the food they buy with their own hands

Buy direct from the producers of the food

 

Dogs on the defensive

____________________________________________________

An expert offers advice

 


A lady contacted me earlier and said, ‘I’ve recently bought a young puppy. When I take her out for a walk around my neighborhood, she turns hostile and aggressive if children try to approach. I don’t know what to do about it. Can you help?’

 

The majority of ‘aggressive’ dogs are just being defensive, because they feel scared, trapped or threatened in some way. The dog is probably feeling frightened by the children and is using canine language to ‘tell’ them to go away. Unfortunately, children do not understand what the day is ‘saying’. The animal resorts to growling and biting in an attempt to drive them away.

 

The fact is that a young dog learns quickly that aggressive behaviour works – it makes the threat disappear. So a dog will keep on being aggressive when he feels threatened, unless you do something about it. You have to act to stop him becoming aggressive before it becomes a learned routine.

 

The first rule of dog ownership is to handle your pet all over every day. If a dog cannot be touched in this way without becoming alarmed, it is a very serious problem. At some point he is going to need treatment from a vet and a physical examination will be impossible. Also, one day a stranger will approach the dog and try to pat him, with disastrous consequences. So, handle your pet daily. You should stroke the

dog’s fur all over, lift his tail, paws and so on.

 

I also see pets who are aggressive behaving disrespectfully in the family home. They have free access to rooms, jump on furniture and steal food.  Dogs need to learn that their owners are incharge and to obey their commands. Dogs can be taught to be more obedient through positive reinforcement. Praise and pat your dog when he obeys your command, or give him a little treat like a tasty biscuit. Treating dogs in this way can have a dramatic effect and make them much better companions.

 

The best solution for dogs who are nervous and agitated around other dogs is to find a training school where the instructor has the experience of dealing with the problem. At a training school, your dog will be introduced to other dogs in a controlled way so that he no longer experiences them as a threat. Games ad gentle play will deter him from acting defensively. It is a good idea, too, for the dog trainer to accompany you and your pet on one of your daily walks in your locality, to observe you both and give advice. It can take a lot of commitment, time, and money to rehabilitate a dog that is difficult to control, but it is well worth doing.

 

 

Why dogs may be aggressive

 

  • ………………………………………………………………………………………

 

  • ………………………………………………………………………………………

 

How to have a well-behaved dog

 

  • ………………………………………………………………………………………

 

  • ………………………………………………………………………………………

  • ………………………………………………………………………………………

 

What dog training schools and trainers can offer?

 

  • ………………………………………………………………………………………

 

  • ………………………………………………………………………………………

 

 

  • ………………………………………………………………………………………

 

LINKED SUMMARY - (Exercise 5 ) - Core Candidates - 4 marks

Using the ideas in your notes, write a paragraph of no more than 70 words explaining how aggressive dog behaviour can be improved. Use your own words as much as you can.


John George Terry

Read the following article about footballer John Terry and then complete the notes.

John George Terry (born 7 December 1980 in Barking, Greater London) is an English professional footballer. Terry plays in a centre back position and is the captain of Chelsea in the Premier League. He has an older brother, Paul, who is also a professional footballer with fellow London club Leyton Orient. Terry is also captain of the England national football team.

Terry was voted best defender in the UEFA Champions League in both 2005 and 2008, the PFA Players' Player of the Year in 2005, and was included in the FIFPro World XI for four consecutive seasons, from 2005 to 2008. He was also named in the all-star squad for the 2006 FIFA World Cup, the only English player to make the team. He wears the number 26 shirt for Chelsea.

In 2007, he became the first captain to lift the FA Cup at the new Wembley Stadium in Chelsea’s 1-0 win over Manchester United, and also the first player to score a full international goal there, scoring a header in England’s 1-1 draw with Brazil. However, the 2007-08 season saw Terry and Chelsea miss out on three trophies, losing the League Cup Final to Tottenham Hotspur and Premier League and UEFA Champions League to Manchester United with Terry missing a penalty in the Champions League final shootout, sending it to sudden death. Had he scored, the European Cup would have been secured for Chelsea.  After the final in Moscow, teammate Frank Lampard described Terry as "a man's man"

© http://www.chelsea.com/

 

You are going to give a talk to your class about your favourite footballer. Prepare some notes to use as the basis for your talk.  (6 marks)

Who John Terry is:

·         …………………………………………………………………………………….

·         …………………………………………………………………………………….

Awards and Honours:

·         …………………………………………………………………………………….

·         …………………………………………………………………………………….

Achievements:

·         …………………………………………………………………………………….

·         …………………………………………………………………………………….

Linked Summary (Exercise 5 ) - Core Candidates - 4 marks

Imagine that your teacher now wants you to follow up your talk with a written summary.

Look at your notes in Exercise 4 above. Using the ideas in your notes, write a summary about who John Terry is and his achievements.

Your summary should be one paragraph of no more than 70 words. You should use your own words as far as possible.

 

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