English as a Second Language

IGCSE English as a Second Language - Cambridge Syllabus

Why Milk Matters - Added 31/01/2011

Read the following article about milk and then write a summary on the advantages of children drinking milk and some of the challenges of offering subsidized milk to school children

 

Your summary should be about 100 words (and no more than 120 words). You should use your own words as far as possible.

You will receive up to 6 marks for the content of your summary, and up to 4 marks for the style and accuracy of your language.

 

The image of milk as a wholesome drink for children, promoting growth and strong bones and teeth, remains rooted in our images of child health – which is largely why the idea of taking away free milk for under-fives was quickly vetoed by David Cameron. Milk is still recommended for young children, despite controversies over the fat and saturated fat content of whole milk and arguments over hormone contents, lactose intolerance, milk allergy and a range of other suggested health disadvantages.

In the UK in the pre-school years, milk is still a major provider of energy and nutrients: children under three obtain about a quarter of their energy and protein from the milk they drink, two-thirds of their intake of calcium, at least half of their intake of the B vitamins riboflavin and vitamin B12 and the mineral phosphorus, a third of their intake of vitamin A and significant amounts of folate and vitamin D.

It can be argued that these nutrients are available in other foods, and some may not be in short supply in the diets of many young children, but it is difficult to unpick the contribution that free milk for under-fives might play in their overall diet – not least for those children from households where other food and drink choices may not be optimum. As safety nets go, milk provided in childcare settings may well be one of the cheaper ones we can offer.

If we can't say for sure how important subsidized milk might be in the diets of children who spend time in childcare settings, we can consider the impact of taking it away. Some will continue to serve milk and pay for it themselves, but there is at present limited advice to childcare settings on what, and how much, food and drink are needed by pre-school children.

This is something the current Advisory Panel on Food and Nutrition in Early Years hopes to correct when it offers its recommendations to the Department of Education later this year. Current evidence suggests that many settings offer too little energy to children, possibly as a result of fears over rising obesity, but possibly to limit costs, and many smaller settings may replace milk with water (most health professionals recommend milk and water as the drinks that do not damage children's teeth) adding to this dilemma.

Messages encouraging young children to drink milk are about more than just whether milk matters to an individual's nutritional intake or to whether children living in poorer circumstances can be proven to benefit from it: we need to think about what message taking the subsidy away might send in an environment where the high profit margin, heavily marketed alternatives are already pernicious enough

 

Content points

Advantages of drinking milk

 

1.     Promotes growth

2.     Promotes strong bones and teeth

3.     Major provider of energy and nutrients

4.     Provider of proteins

5.     Provider of calcium and minerals (ignore examples)

 

Challenges of offering subsidized milk to school children

 

1.     Evidence suggests that many settings offer too little energy to children

2.     Fears of rising obesity

3.     Settings trying to limit costs

4.     Settings replacing milk with water

 

(Maximum content marks are 6 – balance marks 3 each for both sets)

Refer to Cambridge grid for language marks

©John  Peter Christie

The down side of body piercing

 

Read the following article about body piercing. Then write a summary outlining the disadvantages and dangers of body piercing. You should write no more than 120 words. You should use your own words as far as possible.

You will be given up to 6 marks for relevant points that you make and up to 4 marks for the way in which you write about these points.

 

As body piercing grows in popularity among both teenagers and their parents, one in five piercings now leads to infection. Emergency medical technicians recently wheeled a 19 year-old woman who had stopped breathing from a drug overdose into a Westchester City hospital. Doctors tried putting a breathing tube down her throat, but their path was blocked by three 1-inch-long metal stud barbells running along the length of her tongue. One doctor got to the point where he said, ‘If you have to rip her tongue, just do it." Eventually they got the tongue out of the way, but her body piercing could have cost her life.

Infections and Removal Problems

The popularity of piercing various body parts continues to increase, from mainstream thirty-somethings to rebellious teenagers, and they are piercing their bodies in stranger and stranger places - in the mouth, on their navels, through cheeks and even in the genitals.

But doctors are starting to see more of body piercing’s disadvantages: oral piercings are causing swollen tongues, excessive bleeding, infection and swallowing of small jewelry parts. In fact, infections from moist or unclean piercing sites now occur in about one out of every five piercings.

Those receiving the piercings are firing back, however, saying that the majority of people know how to take care of themselves with disinfectants. But, according to some medical practitioners, many piercers are providing their services in unsafe environments - no gloves or mask, no sterilization equipment and unsanitary surroundings.

Other hazards come later – when jewelry is removed from the piercing site. Skin dimpling may appear even though the hole has closed up. A second problem is keloids - where scar tissue extends into normal tissue. If a person receives a paper cut and develops a keloid, they may end up with a scar the thickness of a pen. A keloid the size of a pea may develop on an earlobe where an earring once hung. Unfortunately, if you cut out a keloid, another may develop at the same location.

Caring For Those Little Holes

Each body part presents its own specific danger, such as bleeding, nerve damage or infection and, therefore, requires special attention. Oral piercings, for instance, require an alcohol-free, anti-microbial mouth rinse. Alcohol isn't recommended because it increases the possibility of bleeding. Topical antibiotic creams should not be used for skin piercings because they prevent oxygen from reaching the wound to help it heal. In the upper part of the ear, a serious infection could cause the cartilage to die, leaving permanent disfigurement. Oozing pus from bellybutton piercings is also quite common.

Treating an infection can be difficult. For example, if someone receives an antibiotic to fight the "streptococcus" bacteria, it may be of no help because they actually need an antibiotic to fight the "gram negative" bacteria found in the mouth.

The most common piercing problem is ripped skin from the jewelry either catching on clothing or being pulled off. But maybe the most serious threat is hepatitis C. Hepatitis C is a blood borne infection that is being seen more and more in medical rooms, and doctors fear it may just be the tip of the iceberg. It causes cirrhosis and cancer of the liver and is the most common reason for liver transplants in the U.S. There is currently no vaccine for hepatitis C. Unsterile equipment, poor follow-up care or the reuse of piercing needles all add to the risk of contracting hepatitis C. Only certain materials should be used in piercing, including titanium, surgical steel, 14-karat and 18-karat gold, and a plastic called Tygon or PTFE. Sterling silver should be avoided because it oxidizes.

Answer Key

Content = 6  marks ( any six from below)

Expression = 4 marks

 

  1. oral piercings cause swollen tongues
  2. excessive bleeding
  3. infection and swallowing of body parts
  4. piercing takes place in unsafe environment
  5. no gloves or mask
  6. no sterilization equipment
  7. unsanitary surroundings
  8. skin dimpling may appear even though the hole has closed up
  9. Keloids is a problem where scar tissue extends into normal tissue
  10. the dangers of ripped skin from the jewellery either catching on clothing or being pulled off
  11. causes hepatitis C which is a blood borne infection
  12. poor follow up care
  13. reuse of piercing needles

 

The Efe Pygmies

Read the following article about the Efe Pygmies and then write a summary of the role of women and the hunting methods of the Efe.Your summary should be about 100 words (not more than 120). You should use your own words as far as possible.You will be given up to 6 marks for the content of your summary, and up to 4 marks for the style and accuracy of your language.

            In Central Africa, there lives a group of people called the Pygmies. They are so called because they are very short people, their average height is less than five feet tall. The origin of the word ‘pygmy’ is used to refer to the distance between the elbow and the knuckles, a reference to the height of the people. One tribe of the Pygmies is called the Efe tribe. These people are semi-nomadic. During certain times of the year, they move around in the forest in search of food. The Efe continue to live in the jungle like their ancestors did, hunting and gathering, almost totally unaffected by modernity.

            Scientists find studying the Efe so interesting because these people represent the closest we can ever get to our ancient ancestors. Their way of life remains so unchanged that learning about their lifestyle would open our eyes to how our ancestors lived as well. For instance, the different roles of the women and the men reflect how we also play different roles today. The women are responsible for looking after the family. When the Efe move from place to place within the forest, the women are the ones who pack up and carry all their belongings. The men only have to take care of their weapons as these are what they use to feed their families.

            The Efe are renowned as archers. Their skill as archers sets them apart from other tribes, who use different methods of hunting their prey. The Efe usually hunt in groups for animals like antelope. They surround the animal and shoot at it with arrows from different directions. The arrows have metal tips which are very lethal. The meat of the animal is divided among all the hunters who have participated in the hunt. The best parts of the animal, like the hind legs, are usually given to the hunter who made the first shot. The hunter who shoots the final arrow that brings down the animal also receives quite a good piece of the animal. The hunters who do not manage to shoot the animal at still get an equal share of whatever meat is left.

             The Efe have a great weakness for honey, considered to be a delicacy. Every June, the trees start to flower and bees soon start to build bee hives. Come July, the Efe start looking for honey. In spite of their height, they still manage to reach the hives by climbing up trees. They usually stuff themselves with it, until their bellies are swollen. Sometimes, they eat all that they find, returning home to the women saying that they had no luck. Their full stomachs, of course, tell a different story.

Answer Key

Content = 6  marks ( any six from below)

Expression = 4 marks

1.  Women are responsible for looking after the family

2.  Women are the ones who pack up

3.  Women carry all their belongings

4.  The men usually hunt in groups

5.  they surround the animal

6.  and shoot it with arrows from different directions

7.  the arrows have metal tips which are very lethal

8.  The meat is divided among all the hunters

9.  The best parts – given to – the hunter who made the first shot

10.The best parts also given to – hunter who shot the final arrow

11. Hunters who don’t manage to shoot the animal are still given an equal share

 

Out in the Wheel World

Read the following article about mountain biking. Then write a paragraph giving advice on ways to make sure that mountain biking is safe and environmentally responsible. Write no more than 120 words. Use your own words as far as possible.

Mountain biking is the fastest-growing sport in Britain. The saddle of a bike is a far better vantage point from which to explore the countryside than a car, and you se much more than you would walking. On top of this, it’s great exercise : a day off-road cycling will have everyone sound asleep at night as soon as their heads hit the pillow. But perhaps the best bit of all is that after every lung-bursting climb comes the thrill of bouncing downhill.

Access is one of the most contentious issues surrounding the sport, with everyone from ramblers and horse riders to farmers and environmentalists wailing about the impact of mountain bikes on country-side. However, if you are riding on a legally accessible trail, you have just as much right to be there as they do. The main thing, as with all outdoor sports, is to show consideration for others: don’t tear up behind walkers or riders – warn them of your approach and ride past slowly. As for erosion, try not to skid unnecessarily on wet grass and soil, although independent research has shown that mountain bikes cause no more erosion than walkers’ boots and good deal less than horses’ hooves.

If you pass through gates, always close or fasten them behind you. Don’t disturb livestock, and make sure you always know where you’re going, so don’t end up riding through a field of crops after making a wrong turn. Mark your route on a map before you set out 9and know how to read it!) so it’s easy to follow the trail.

Everyone falls off at some point – a rock, a pot-hole or tree root will catch you out eventually – so the golden rule is to wear a helmet. Always.  It’s also useful to carry a basic first-aid kit, and, as an expert advises, ‘don’t stray too far out into the wilds, just in case you do have an accident.’ Many of the more experienced riders who go up into the mountains of Scotland and the Lake District take mobile phones in case they come to grief in a remote area. You might agree that this would be a good occasion to have one.

Answer Key

How to make sure that mountain biking is safe: (Any 3)

  1. Make sure you always know where you are going
  2. Mark your route on a map before you set  out
  3. wear a helmet
  4. carry a basic first-aid kit
  5. take mobile phone when you go to a remote area

How to make sure that mountain biking is environmentally responsible: (Any 3)

  1. warn people of your approach and ride past them slowly
  2. Always close or fasten gates behind you.
  3. don’t disturb livestock
  4. try not to skid unnecessarily on wet grass and soil

 

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